Yet, this is not required. Who can read my email? How do I know that eBay is eBay, or amazon is amazon? What is the public key of Angela Merkel? Where do I get it and how do I verify that it's really hers? We will try to understand a little of that and how things are used and made available. Network Security. Prentice Hall. Smith, Richard E. Internet cryptography. If a directory contains Oracle8 i or prior users, then they are automatically upgraded to use the wallet upload and download feature on first use. If an SSL certificate is not present in the wallet, password-based authentication is used.
Wallets provide a necessary repository in which you can securely store your user certificates and the trust point you need to validate the certificates of your peers.
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Generate a certificate request. Note that when you create a new wallet with Oracle Wallet Manager, the tool automatically prompts you to create a certificate request. Send the certificate request to the CA you want to use. You can copy and paste the certificate request text into an e-mail message, or you can export the certificate request to a file. The certificate request becomes part of your wallet.
It must remain there until you remove its associated certificate. When the CA sends your signed user certificate and its associated trusted certificate , then you can import these certificates in the following order. The user certificates and trusted certificates in the PKCS 7 format can be imported at the same time.
First import the CA's trusted certificate into your wallet. This step may be optional if the new user certificate has been issued by one of the CAs whose trusted certificate is already present in Oracle Wallet Manager by default. After you have successfully imported the trusted certificate, then import the user certificate that the CA sent to you into your wallet. Typically, this feature, which enables PKI-based access to services without a password, is required for most wallets. It is required for database server and client wallets. It is only optional for products that take the wallet password at the time of startup.
After completing the preceding process, you have a wallet that contains a user certificate and its associated trust points. This section describes how to create a new wallet and perform associated wallet management tasks, such as generating certificate requests, exporting certificate requests, and importing certificates into wallets, in the following subsections:. Because an Oracle wallet contains user credentials that can be used to authenticate the user to multiple databases, it is especially important to choose a strong wallet password. A malicious user who guesses the wallet password can access all the databases to which the wallet owner has access.
Passwords must contain at least eight characters that consist of alphabetic characters combined with numbers or special characters. You can use Oracle Wallet Manager to create PKCS 12 wallets the standard default wallet type that store credentials in a directory on your file system. It can also be used to create PKCS 11 wallets that store credentials on a hardware security module for servers, or private keys on tokens for clients.
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The following sections explain how to create both types of wallets by using Oracle Wallet Manager. Unless you have a hardware security module a PKCS 11 device , then you should use a standard wallet that stores credentials in a directory on your file system.
Select Wallet , then New from the menu bar. The New Wallet dialog box is displayed. This password protects unauthorized use of your credentials. Click OK to continue. If the entered password does not conform to the required guidelines, then the following message is displayed:.
An alert is displayed, and informs you that a new empty wallet has been created. It prompts you to decide whether you want to add a certificate request. Refer to "Adding a Certificate Request". If you select No , then you are returned to the Oracle Wallet Manager main window. The new wallet you just created is displayed in the left window pane. The certificate has a status of [Empty] , and the wallet displays its default trusted certificates.
If you do not have permission to save the wallet in the system default, you can save it to another location. This location must be used in the SSL configuration for clients and servers. To create a wallet to store credentials on a hardware security module that complies with PKCS 11, perform the following tasks:.
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For more information, refer to "Adding a Certificate Request". If you select No , you are returned to the Oracle Wallet Manager main window. Select Wallet , Open from the menu bar.
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The Select Directory dialog box is displayed. You are returned to the main window and a message is displayed at the bottom of the window indicating the wallet was opened successfully. The wallet's certificate and its trusted certificates are displayed in the left window pane. Follow the procedure specific to your third-party product to import an operating system PKCS 12 wallet file created by Oracle Wallet Manager called ewallet.
Oracle Wallet Manager supports multiple certificates for each wallet, yet current browsers typically support import of single-certificate wallets only. For these browsers, you must export an Oracle wallet containing a single key-pair. Oracle Wallet Manager supports wallet export to only Netscape Communicator 4. Individual components are formatted according to the standards listed in Table Within the wallet, only those certificates with SSL key usage are exported with the wallet.
Select Operations , Export Wallet. The Export Wallet dialog box is displayed. Enter the destination file system directory for the wallet, or navigate to the directory structure under Folders. Otherwise, it lets you enter the directory password. To prevent accidental destruction of your wallet, Oracle Wallet Manager will not permit you to execute the upload option unless the target wallet is currently open and contains at least one user certificate.
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If the currently open wallet has not been saved, a dialog box is displayed with the following message:. Wallet certificates are checked for SSL key usage. Depending on whether a certificate with SSL key usage is found in the wallet, one of the following results occur:. A message is displayed indicating whether the wallet was uploaded successfully or it failed. Oracle Wallet Manager attempts connection to the LDAP directory server using simple password authentication mode, assuming that the wallet password is the same as the directory password.
If the connection fails, a dialog box prompts for the directory password of the specified DN. Oracle Wallet Manager attempts connection to the LDAP directory server using this password and displays a warning message if the attempt fails. Otherwise, Oracle Wallet Manager displays a status message at the bottom of the window indicating that the upload was successful.
You should ensure that the distinguished name used matches a corresponding user entry of object class inetOrgPerson in the LDAP directory. When a wallet is downloaded from an LDAP directory, it is resident in working memory. It is not saved to the file system unless you explicitly save it using any of the save options described in the following sections. A dialog box prompts for the user's distinguished name DN , and the LDAP directory password, host name, and port information.
Depending on whether the downloading operation succeeds or not, one of the following results occurs:. If the download operation fails: Check to make sure that you have correctly entered the user's DN, and the LDAP server host name and port information.
The port used must be the non-SSL port. If the download is successful: Click OK to open the downloaded wallet. Oracle Wallet Manager attempts to open that wallet using the directory password. If the operation fails after using the directory password, then a dialog box prompts for the wallet password. If Oracle Wallet Manager cannot open the target wallet using the wallet password, then check to make sure you entered the correct password.
Otherwise a message displays at the bottom of the window, indicating that the wallet was downloaded successfully.