But humans always learned to adapt or cope, sometimes by moving. At first people followed the water, settling near rivers, lakes, and springs, and moving to others if these dried up because of climate variability. As our technology evolved, people moved the water to them by building reservoirs, aqueducts, and stations. However in the past hundred years our population has mushroomed and large cities and megacities have developed.
Water consumption has risen to feed us, quench our thirst, and supply the industries that feed our economic growth. Pollution loads have outstripped the capacity of our ecosystems to respond. Locally and regionally, competition for water is increasing. To this must be added the threats to regional and global ecosystems caused by anthropogenic and natural climate change. Conflicts over water could be looked upon as consisting of three key spheres: hydrosphere, economic, and political.
Even within the context of human needs , conflicts over water are often affected by problems in the economic and political spheres as much as those generated within the water sphere itself. Similarly, problems in the water sphere may lead to conflicts or disputes in the other two spheres. Inequities are increasing between the rich who can afford to cope and the poor who cannot.
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Earth may have neared a point of discontinuity in human civilization. This has led some to claim that water wars are inevitable. A counter-movement claims that learning to cooperate in sharing water will build peace. The World Water Vision exercise concluded that the planet does not suffer from a shortage of water, but from mismanagement of this precious resource. UNESCO , an organization whose mandated is devoted to peace, has undertaken a program of activities to determine how serious the problem is, whether conflict can be avoided, and — assuming that it can — how to build the capacity to assure this will happen.
Problems in the water sphere are mainly caused by various human and natural factors.
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These problems can normally be grouped into three major kinds in the water sphere: water quality , water quantity , and ecosystem problems. Increasing populations impose increasing demands for water supplies, often leading to unsustainable withdrawals. Human consumption and activities of humans in industry and agriculture generate wastes that are usually discharged into water bodies.
Finally the environment and supporting ecosystems require water, and meeting those requirements often conflicts with meeting other demands. The natural factors include the erratic natural distribution, extreme climatic events such as floods, droughts, and cyclones , arid and semi-arid climates, and local natural conditions. While human intervention may minimize the impact of these natural factors, lack of consideration and ignorance of the important roles of ecosystem functions, together with lack of consultation with stakeholders , may aggravate water conflicts.
Global environmental change is also identified as a potential driver for water conflict. However these trends towards climate change and extreme events are on a global scale and need to be properly handled so as to prevent them from escalating into water conflicts. The economic and political factors are treated as separate driving forces. Although these factors have a strong interaction with the key factors affecting the water sphere directly, they may originate independently from the water sphere.
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Often, the problems in the economic and political spheres are caused by a lack of detailed information on good management of water resources or by differences in the perception of a fair and equitable share of the water resources. Possible drivers for disputes in the economic and political spheres are identified in the figure below. In a river basin that traverses an international border, a political regional boundary, or a general boundary of different jurisdiction, the basis of a conflict is most often the implementation of developments by a stakeholder within its territory.
Such implementation impacts at least one of its neighbors during water shortage conditions, and may lead to a number of water conflicts. Water conflicts may be related to a number of other issues including water quantity, water quality, management of multiple use, political divisions, geopolitical setting, level of national development, hydro-political issues at stake, and institutional control of water resources.
Very often the source of the conflict is itself an obstacle to cooperation. Greater upstream use, for example, may be difficult to reduce when it is due to a rise in population. Water-quality-related conflicts due to pollution resulting from extensive agricultural development upstream might have implications for food security in the upstream country. In a large river basin water may be managed for multiple uses such as power generation, food production, industrial development , municipal water supply, recreation, or a combination of these.
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Different user groups having different objectives will have difficulty in arriving at a common schedule of quantity and time of water distribution. Political decisions driven by other factors may impact on water resources management. For example shifting political boundaries may demarcate new riparian areas in the international river basins. ReliefWeb subscriptions get a revamp Many of you more than , subscribers at the last count!
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How to submit content. Tools API - Real-time data stream to power next-generation apps. Location Maps - Country maps for your reports and presentations. Humanitarian Icons - Ready-to-use symbols and icons. Friends of the Earth in Jordan Director Munqeth Mehyar told the group that everyone is to blame for the river's sorry state. While officials at the gathering talked of giving the revitalization of the Jordan River high priority, none gave any indication of doing the obvious - not siphoning off 90 percent of the river's flow.
Loose cooperation has led to generally peaceful use of the waters, but experts say much more cooperation is needed to manage and replenish the area's scarce water resources in an environmentally sound manner and sustain development for all those who depend on them. Open main navigation Live TV. Full Schedule. Live Radio. Live TV. English voanews.
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